This article on photographing archaeological sites appeared in the journal Hawaiian Archaeology, Volume 13, 2013Becket_journal-format_final
Why you are doing this assignment
A photograph is just a pattern of light and dark tones on a flat piece of paper. It works by creating the illusion that the image is in three dimensions and has depth. Photographers deliberately create that illusion in lots of ways, but one of the most basic is to include subjects that are both close and far.
How to do this assignment
- Locate a series of scenes that contain visually interesting objects or people (We call that object the center of interest.)
- Back up so that when you take the pictures other objects enter into the frame.
- Place your center of interest so that you are shooting through the closer objects, so that they become a part of the image. We say that these objects are in the foreground. Sometimes we call them the frame (even though they might exist just on one side, and not extend all the way around your image.)
What to shoot
Think of somebody standing at the top of a flight of stairs, with the photographer standing near the bottom. The image might include the nearby part of the handrail. Or think of someone standing some distance away, with your shot taken through someoneʻs legs, with that personʻs shadow extending towards your subject. Imagine a shot of, say, an overflowing dumpster, taken though some foliage, or through an open doorway.
Whatever you shoot, frame it with something in the foreground.
What your folder should contain
- A contact sheet. It is ok to punch holes in a contact sheet.
- Three identical 5X7 prints (prints from the same negative). Pick your best shot of the roll. Make a tape circle and stick the prints on white paper. Punch hols in the white paper, never in your prints.
For the first print determine the best exposure using the test strip method you have been taught. Print that image using the #0 filter. Make two more prints, one with filter #2.5 and the last with filter #5. Remember that when you use the filters, the white light indicator light must be OFF.
Remember that the most recent assignment goes on TOP.
What your assignment should look like
Aim for a contact sheet that contains
- At least 20 visible images
- At least 7 different subjects
- Solid black outside the negatives
- Identifiable negatives, not too light or too dark
Your three prints should show differences in tone or value. Look carefully at the darkest and whitest areas and try to see what the filters do. We will discuss this in class.
Why you are doing this assignment
Students sometimes forget that the camera can be turned on its side to produce vertical images. Occasionally, the vertical format matches the image far better than the horizontal format.
How to do this assignment
Your assignment is to take a roll of nothing but vertical images. Go on a treasure hunt for subjects that work as vertical images.
What to shoot
Of course, portraits of people almost always work best as verticals, but for this assignment, do not take any portraits. (Those will come in a later assignment.) CAUTION: avoid splitting the frame right through the center, with a vertical line or a horizontal line.
What your folder should contain
One contact sheet labeled “Roll #1”
What your assignment should look like
Aim for a contact sheet that contains
- At least 20 visible images
- At least 7 different subjects – no portraits
- Vertical images appropriate to the subject matter
Photoquai curatorʻs statement (PDF download)
Photoquai curator’s statement (embedded PDF)Photoquai-Statement1
THIS STATEMENT (IN FRENCH) ACCOMPANIED THE EXHIBIT OF 6 MĀKUA IMAGES IN PHOTO QUAI 2009, MUSÉE QUAI BRANLY, PARIS
Né à Hawai‘i, j’ai poursuivi mes études à Paris dans les années soixante-dix. Pendant les vingt-cinq dernières années, j’ai enseigné la littérature et la photographie dans un lycée privé à Honolulu, lycée réservé uniquement aux étudiants hawaïens. Je suis l’un des deux éditeurs et photographes du livre à grand format Pana O’ahu, (UH Press, 1999), un catalogue photographique des temples hawaïens qui restent sur l’île le plus exploité en Polynésie.
Avec ces images de la vallée de Mākua sur l’île d’O‘ahu, une centaine de kilomètres de la grande ville de Honolulu, j’explore l’espace entre deux cultures, deux façons de se placer dans l’univers, deux attitudes envers la même terre. L’une est arrivée ici à Hawai‘i il y a deux mille ans; l’aure est venue il y a deux cent trente ans environ et a tout de suite commencé à assimiler l’autre: ses lois, sa religion, son économie, sa langue, ses terres. Cet abîme entre deux mondes existe partout à Hawaii, mais à Mākua, c’est plus net, plus clair.
À la base de la culture polynésienne on trouve l’idée que la terre, la mer et tout ce qu’il leur appartient est donné par les dieux. Les Hawaïens ont fait alors grande attention à l’harmonie entre terre, peuple et dieux, qui sont au fond membres de la même famille. Leurs temples anciens qui restent à Mākua suggèrent cette relation. Quand les colons américains sont arrivés, leur économie et leurs valeurs dix-neuviémistes, ont précipité un bouleversement des valeurs traditionnelles de la société hawaïenne. Les colons ont apporté et imposé surtout la notion que les ressources naturelles existent pour le profit personnel.
Autrefois, des nombreuses terrasses agricoles s’étendaient sur la longueur de la vallée. Cependant, les maladies introduites pendant le 19ème s. ont largement diminué la population de Mākua, qui a cessé de cultiver l’intérieur de la vallée. Avec la retraite de la population s’est passé au même temps le déplacement des plantes indigènes sur les beaux versants de la vallée, un autre niveau de colonisation occidentale. Cependant, dans les montagnes derrière Mākua se trouvent de petites populations, des plantes et des animaux parmi les plus rares de toute l’île de O‘ahu.
Dès le début du 20ème s. les familles hawaïennes sont restées dans la vallée au bord de la mer, travaillant comme des paniolo (cowboys) pour l’entreprise McCandless qui élevait de gros bétail là-bas. Ces Hawaïens continuaient à cultiver de petits jardins, à pêcher, et à assister aux offices de leur église protestante, fondée dans les années 1850. Il est écrit qu’ils ont aussi continué à offrir des prières à certains temples anciens dans la vallée.
Dès le début de la deuxième guerre mondiale et l’attaque japonaise de Pearl Harbor, tous les habitants de Mākua one été expulsés par l’armée. Leurs maisons, leur église et même leur cimetière sont devenus des cibles dans les jeux de guerre. L’église n’existe plus. Le temple traditionnel de pèche à la plage s’est effacé. En 1943, l’armée a promis que Mākua serait remis après la guerre en bon état, mais en 1955, l’armée a constaté que Mākua était si contaminé par des munitions non-explosés qu’il n’était plus pratique de le rendre à la population hawaïenne, et donc qu’il était de continuer les exercices de guerre. Jusqu’à ce jour, l’armée impose ces exercices à la vallée, ce qui cause des feux, mettant en danger les plantes hawaïennes déjà en passe de disparaître. De temps en temps, on y trouve des bombes de 200 à 300 kilo qui explosent. On y trouve également de toutes petites bombes “ICM” (improved conventional munitions; cluster bombs), maintenant proscrites dans de pays nombreux.
Comme photographe, je suis témoin d’une part des efforts admirables de réintroduire une mesure de la vie traditionnelle à Mākua, de faire revivre la vallée et avec ça, la culture hawaïenne qui lui appartient. D’autre part, je prends la mesure de l’empreinte des pas de l’occident sur un paysage polynésien.
In the past decades, generations have been developing more and more devices that “help” us live an easier life. In today’s world people went from using sticks to light a fire to turning a switch and heating up a burner, from running around to take messages to a single drive to the post office or a single click on the computer for email, and from walking 6 hours to get somewhere to driving for only an hour. Building so many technologies no one looked into what these devices were ruining. Mind blowing facts were found that scare the scientific community. There is something that roams the air called Carbon Emissions, and scientist have found that it is almost at its peak. Carbon emissions are polluting carbon substances released into the atmosphere; carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are two examples of carbon emissions. Carbon emissions are produces by motor vehicles. Everyday people around the world are doing an activity to increase carbon emissions. In 2008 carbon levels were over 380 parts per million and on average it is estimated that carbon levels will continue to rise by more that 2ppm every year. As more carbon emission are spread into the atmosphere it is said when the world reaches 650ppm, there will be a 4°C rise in temperature. With Carbon Emissions rising more and more each year there will be a rise in sea levels, rise in temperature, and a shortage in food supply.
Carbon emissions is polluting the air right now as we speak, carbon emissions is surrounding the Earth causing global warming. In Global Warming many things can happen and one of the causes is temperature rising. As said before when carbon levels reach 650 ppm there will be an increase in the temperature of 4°C. Rising temperatures affect the rising of sea levels. In 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported an issue discussing future sea level rising. “The publishing from the IPCC are unprejudiced and full contracts condensing the influence of global warming on the planet (Young, Pilkey)”. The IPCC did calculations showing the future sea level but they only included thermal expansion of the oceans and melting of mountain glaciers outside the poles. Using only those boundaries the IPCC calculated a maximum of a two-foot rise this century. The IPCC did a great job with their calculations, but because of their laziness they didn’t include the melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, which are two of the most important factors to the predictions of sea level rise. “Most climate scientists believe melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will be one of the main drivers of sea level rise during this century (Young, Pilkey)”. “…Majority climate scientists confide that the major push of sea level rise in the 21st century is the defrosting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Greenland Ice Sheet (Young, Pilkey)”. With these two ice sheets melting there will be a 20 feet sea level rise and that is only including these two massive sheets.
With ice caps melting and affecting the sea level rise it will affect land being submerged under water. Sea level rising will affect homes and the people who live in coastal areas. It is recommended to, “Immediately prohibit the construction of high-rise buildings and major infrastructure in areas vulnerable to future sea level rise. Building placed in future hazardous zones should be small and movable – or disposable (Young, Pilkey)”.
The ice caps melting will cover up land concluding in a higher increase in food shortage. While the oceans rise coastal areas will be covered which is said to be the biggest piece of land where there are crops. “Building on discredit to trauma, in many portions of Asia the rice crop will be wrecked by rising sea level – a three-foot level rise will terminate half of the rice assembly in Vietnam – resulting a food crisis unexpected with the large migration of people (Young, Pilkey)”.
Rising temperatures also has an effect on the shortage of food. “A finding, in the US Journal Science came across a 90% probability that by the ending of the century, the refreshing temperatures in the tropics with the crop swelling season, would go beyond the most sizzling temperatures documented between 1900 and 2006” (Sample).” Blazing high temperatures will affect farmers’ crops, which could put half of the world’s population in a severe food shortage. According to a new study, “heated temperatures in the zone are also assumed to rise the uncertainty of drought, cutting produce losses more (Sample)”. Knowing that the temperatures will raise drastically a director, Naylor suggested developing new crops that would be able to handle the higher temperatures in the future. The biggest change in crops grown is predicted to be in the tropics because there the crops are more sensitive to the changes in the climate.
Loss of food will affect the people in a big way. “The overpower of the food shortages are believed to touch the poor, densely populate areas of the equatorial belt, where command for food is already escalating because of a swift expansion in population (Sample)”. Higher temperatures will cut crops such as rice and maize between 20 to 40%. People will have to find knew ways food can be able to grow in raging hot weather.
All of these studies have shown that we as the people who live on this planet needs to change our ways and help give back to the land, how the land has provided to us. Scientist has been studying for years and all they keep saying is bad things, so we need to cut back. James Lovelock, a scientist in Cornwall, has said, “it’s just too late for it, perhaps if we’d gone along routes like that in 1967, it might have helped. But we don’t have time. All these standard green things, like sustainable development, I think these are just words that mean nothing. I get an awful lot of people coming to me saying you can’t say that, because it gives us nothing to do. I say on the contrary, it gives us an immense amount to do. Just not the kinds of things you want to do (Aitkenhead)”. To make the future a better place to live we need to start thinking of not only how to go green, but how we can adapt to the rising temperatures, rising sea levels, and food shortage, because it is bound to happen.
Adam, David. “Too Late? Why Scientists Say We Should Expect the Worst.” The Guardian [London] 9 Dec. 2008, Global Development sec.: 1-4. Print.
Aitkenhead, Decca. “‘Enjoy Life While You Can'” The Guardian. 1 Mar. 2008. Web. 22 May 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2008/mar/01/scienceofclimatechange.climatechange?INTCMP=SRCH>.
Sample, Ian. “Billions Face Food Shortages, Study Warns.” The Guardian [London] 9 Jan. 2009, Global Development sec.: 1-2. Print.
Young, Rob, and Orrin Pilkey. “Get Ready for Seven-foot Sea Level Rise as Climate Change Melts Ice Sheets.” The Guardian [London] 15 Jan. 2010, Global Development sec.: 1-4. Print.
Notes on the paper above: The first half of the introduction could be cut, with the paper beginning at the fifth sentence. With a short paper like this, itʻs best to begin directly and simply. There are just a few language / style problems. Some of the short sentences might be joined effectively to make longer, more graceful ones. The phrase “Carbon Emissions” should not be capitalized and takes a plural verb. However, the paperʻs introduction, in its second half, lays out a clear cause and effect road map for the rest of the paper and includes a few of the most important facts. Paragraphs in the body are connected by transitional phrases and contain lots of specific information, which is correctly cited. The paper includes all of the most relevant information in each of the articles. The conclusion effectively summarizes what has been covered and adds an additional reference that expands on the points and issues raised in the paper. The list of works cited is in the correct MLA format, for the most part. Overall , this is an excellent paper.
Effects of CO2 lead to Global Warming
Scientists warn that feedback loops caused by factors such as tropical deforestation continue to raise CO2 levels to unexpected levels. This in turn, is leading to the world’s 6th mass extinction and to the depopulation of large parts of the earth.
Global warming is happening much quicker than what people predicted and it is mainly because of the increase of gas emissions and the higher temperatures. The burning of coal was proven to be the result of higher emissions, which releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and causes temperatures to rise (Lydersen). “These higher temperatures are beginning to melt the arctic permafrost, which could release hundreds of billions of tons of carbon dioxide and methane” (Lydersen). The rise of carbon dioxide will also affect the growth of plants. “Warmer weather, earlier snowmelt, drought, and beetle infestations facilitated by warmer climates are all contributing to the rising number of fires linked to climate change” (Lydersen). Wildfires are also able to release more carbon dioxide than coal burning. So in the tropical forests, we need to prevent deforestation because it is more likely to be susceptible for fires than the other forests (Lydersen).
On the other hand, this is the 6th mass extinction of plants and animals. “At least 50% of all species could disappear” (Environmental News Service). The cause of this extinction is due to the pollution in the atmosphere from humans. The most important species are the genetically unique ones. For example, losing the buttercup would have a much bigger impact than losing a daisy or a sunflower because studies show that “fewer species produce less biomass than those with more species. Less plant biomass means that less carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere and less oxygen is produced” (Environmental News Service). This will eventually lead to food chains being affected, because there will be fewer plants for animals to eat, and it will interrupt the production of crops and agriculture (Environmental News Service).
The two degrees centigrade in global warming temperatures will most likely cause changes in the world leading to droughts, hunger, and flooding. The IPCC says that Africa, Asian river deltas, low-lying islands, and the Arctic will be the places that will be affected the most (Milmo). In Africa, about 350-600 million people will suffer from water shortages, agriculture could fall, and the number of species will be at risk. In Asia, 1 billion people will suffer water shortages, maze and wheat fields will fall, rice crops will drop, and flooding will occur. In Australia/New Zealand, 3,00-5,00 people will die from the heat, water supplies will drop, and annual bleaching from the Great Barrier Reef will begin. In Europe, warm temperatures will increase wheat crops, but water supplies will drop; heat waves, forest fires, and floods will increase, and new diseases will appear. In Latin America, 77 million people will face water shortages and there will be flooding. In North America, crops will increase and there will be extreme weather conditions. In Polar Regions, permafrost will increase and some communities will face loss of traditional lifestyle. There will also be land loss in the low-lying islands because of rising sea levels (Milmo). A study also predicted that in the next 10 years or less, this global warming would occur. “If warming is not kept below 10 degrees centigrade, then global impacts will occur, such as species extinctions, and millions of people at risk from drought, hunger, and flooding” (Milmo). It is therefore time to believe that there is no possible solution to this problem, and it will in fact happen.
The world will face a “perfect storm” by 2030, problems with shortages of food, water, and energy will begin to arise. “If we don’t address this, we can expect major destabilization, an increase in rioting and potentially significant problems with international migration, as people move out to avoid food and water shortages” (Sample). Northern Europe and other high latitude regions will become the major places for food production. There is a need for a renewable energy supplies, boosting crop yields, and using existing water supplies (Sample). In China, they began to build reservoirs so it will catch the melt water from glaciers, which will later be distributed into the water supply (Sample). The decrease of water, food, and energy, and the increase in flooding is a sign of global warming. There is no way to avoid globally warming because it is drastically changing the world around us slowly.
Environmental News Service. “Genetically Unique Plants Matter Most in Current Mass Extinction.” Truthout. 21 Oct. 2008.
Lydersen, Kari. “Scientists: Pace of Climate Change Exceeds Estimates.” Truthout. 15 Feb. 2009.
Milmo, Cahal. ‘Too late to avoid global warming,’ says scientist. The Independent 19 Sept. 2007.
Sample, Ian. “World faces ‘perfect storm’ of problems by 2030, chief scientist to Warn.” Guardian. 18 Mar. 2009.
Notes on the paper above: The introduction is 3-4 sentences too short, but does not contain meaningless fluff. The paperʻs conclusion is fine: it brings in significant additional ideas that build upon what has been presented. The conclusion adds an additional article and adds citations for the facts it contributes. The paperʻs body paragraphs make good use of specific facts, which are attributed in the citations. The paragraphs need better transitions from one to the next, although specific facts are cited effectively and then attributed within text citations. The first two articles in the works cited section at the end need to be put into the correct format, with the original printed sources cited.
The Day After Tomorrow
Global warming has been among the most talked about subjects in the world for years. According to many scientists, the warming temperatures of the earth are rapidly increasing mainly due to our actions. This overwhelming issue has sadly been pushed to the point of no return. The world’s leading climate scientists are now stating that global warming is now “very unlikely to be avoided” (Milmo).
Scientists warn that the worldwide impact from global warming is unavoidable in places such as Africa, Asia rivers and deltas, and the low lying regions of the Arctic. “The rise of two degrees centigrade or less in global temperatures above pre-industrial levels as the benchmark after which the effects of climate become devastating, with crop failures, water shortages, sea-level rises, species extinctions and increased disease” (Milmo). It is predicted that in 10 years this “tipping point” will be reached. An assessment by the IPCC predicts that “up to two billion people worldwide will face water shortages and up to 30 per cent of plant and animal species would be put at risk of extinction if the average rise in temperature stabilizes at 1.5C to 2.5C” (Milmo). Even if lifestyle changes were made, the chances of reducing the risk of severe damages caused by global warming, is nearly impossible.
According to an article written by Kari Lydersen, the rate of global warming is much faster than predicted. Christopher Field, founding director of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology at Stanford University stated, “We are basically looking now at a future climate that’s beyond anything we’ve considered seriously in climate model simulations” (Lydersen). A large contributor to the raised concern of global warming is the increased numbers of burning coal in other developing countries. Large amounts of carbon dioxide are being released into the air due to the melting of the arctic permafrost, which holds nearly 1 trillion tons of carbon dioxide. Lydersen also states, “Along with carbon dioxide, melting permafrost releases methane, which is 25 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide” (Lydersen). This cycle is otherwise known as feedback loops, where the warming causes the release of carbon dioxide, leading to more warming, thus more release from the melting permafrost. “The carbon is making the oceans more acidic, which also reduces their ability to absorb carbon” (Lydersen). In the Northern Hemisphere, the snowmelt, melting of the arctic, and increase of vegetation is causing an absorption rather than reflection, which also promotes the warming temperatures. Scientists warn that feedback loops caused by factors such as tropical deforestation continue to raise co2 levels to unexpected levels. This in turn, is leading to the worlds 6th mass extinction and to the depopulation of large parts of the earth.
Environment News Service states in an article that “50 percent of all species could disappear within the lifetimes of people now living on Earth” (Environment News Service). The current negativity of the Earth’s ecosystem is largely credited to what pollution that we have all contributed to. Scientists have determined that some species are more vital in preserving the ecosystems, than others. Scientist Bradley Cardinale, assistant professor of ecology, evolution and marine biology at the University of California-Santa Barbara, states, “The Earth might well lose half of its species in our lifetime. We want to know which ones deserve the highest priority for conservation” (Environment News Service). For example, Marc Cadotte, a postdoctoral fellow at the university’s National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, discovered that, “the buttercup is a very unique species, evolutionarily. Losing the buttercup, where it occurs in grasslands, would have a much bigger impact on the system than losing a daisy or a sunflower” (Environment News Service). Losing species that are not closely related to other species in ecosystems, take heavier tolls on the Earth, rather than losing closely related species. “The more genetically distinct a species is, the more impact it has on the amount of biomass in an ecosystem” (Environment News Service). It is crucial that people are educated about which species play the most important rolls, so that we can be diligent in helping the ecosystem.
The reality is settling in for many. Global Warming is simply unavoidable. According to an article written by Decca Aitkenhead, in 1965, executives at Shell were curious as to what the world would look like in the year 2000. Most marveled at the idea of hover crafts, and mind blowing technology, but they were all wrong. When scientist James Lovelock was asked this question, he said, “It will be worsening then to such an extent that it will seriously affect their business.” Decades later, Lovelock stands correct. The abuse towards Earth that each human being has played a part in, is resulting in the desiccation of numerous species, all being affected by global warming. At this point, our actions will determine either a damaged world or a fatally damaged world.
“Genetically Unique Plants Matter Most in Current Mass Extinction.” Environment News Service. 21 Oct. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.
Milmo, Cahal. “‘Too Late to Avoid Global Warming,’ Say Scientists – Climate Change, Environment – The Independent.” The Independent | News | UK and Worldwide News | Newspaper. 19 Sept. 2007. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.
Lydersen, Kari. “Scientists: Pace of Climate Change Exceeds Estimates – Washingtonpost.com.” Washington Post – Politics, National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines – Washingtonpost.com. 15 Feb. 2009. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.
Aitkenhead, Decca. “‘Enjoy Life While You Can’ | Environment | The Guardian.” Latest News, Comment and Reviews from the Guardian | Guardian.co.uk. 1 Mar. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.